This article is propaedeutic in nature: the author presents a kind ofcompendium of ideas formed in the publicism of the Slavophiles with the aim of further analysis of their civil poetry, planned in his future publications.
The article focuses on the main ideas of Slavophilism, reveals the historical context in which the movement was born and functioned. The theoretical basis of Slavophil Thought was the reflections and publications of Orthodox clergy and German philosophers such as Schelling, Kant, Hegel and Schopenhauer. The main principles of Slavophilism are considered: religious character, love for the Russian people and anti-serfdom character; the main doctrines of Slavophilism, presented by I. Kireevsky, A. Khomyakov and K. Aksakov, are briefly considered. The connection between the ideology of the Slavophiles and the parallel movement of pan-Slavism is viewed.
The doctrine of the Slavophiles (the antithesis of Russia and Europe) was the basis for Pan-Slavism in Russia; its main activists (including M. Pogodin, N. Danilevsky) demanded, in accordance with the triune formula "Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality", to give the Romanov Empire a popular character, to subordinate its internal policy to the development of Russian state principles in their understanding, and foreign policy to pan - Slavism. Danilevsky ("Russia and Europe") recommended the complete isolation from Western Europe as a necessary counterweight to its influence on the Slavic region and the creation of a Great All-Slavic Union with Constantinople (Constantinople) under Russian rule.
Due to the exacerbation of Russian-Turkish relations (including the Crimean War), vague concepts became political (slogans of "holy war" against Turkey's Western allies); after the Crimean War, pan-Slavism became an official and organized movement (its own newspapers and Pan-Slavic societies), supported by the Russian government. Pan-Slavism reached its crescendo during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, and then it weakened It revived for a short time in the form of neo-Slavism, under the slogan of cooperation of the Slavic peoples against Germany. At the end, a brief account of the further fate of pan-Slavism and its national variant is given.
History of ideas, social movements, Slavophilism, the Polish question, apologia of Orthodoxy, pan-Slavism, mythologeme of the special way, historiosophy of the empire, neo-Paganism.