Peculiarities of applying the dialogue methodology of a work of art are considered using the example of the analysis of the story by Anton Pavlovich Chekhov “Boys”. The dialogue technique is innovative and is the subject of research in many pedagogical sciences. The specific of its application in the methodology of Russian literature teaching is determined primarily by the dialogical structure of literary texts. The methodology is being created on an integration basis; its base is literary criticism. The method of theoretical generalization of knowledge, as well as an experiment, allows maintaining the principle of scientific character and verifying the result. Chekhov's prose is characterized by increased dialogicity, which is especially significant in children's reading and teaching literature at school. The productivity of the use of dialogue techniques in the process of analyzing A.P. Chekhov's story "Boys" is proved by many indicators. Communicative competence, the center of which is the basic concept of dialogue, is developed. The reader takes part in a dialogue which is exemplarily organized at the highest level by the author and opens up opportunities for active cognitive activity. The reader’s competency is deepening: the student understands his role in reconstructing the meaning of the work, follows the algorithms of dialogical thinking, realizes the appropriateness of analysis in revealing hidden content, realizes the need to go beyond the bounds of immanent analysis of the text and to attract information from different types of contexts. The analysis process is technologized thanks to the developed algorithms of readers’ activity. At the same time readers do not lose interest, since each dialogical situation is cognitive.
Chekhov, dialogue, author, reader, teacher, methodology, innovation, systematic principle, science.