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DOI 10.52172/2587-6945_2021_17_3_95


The article presents the main ideas of Slavophilism and shows their influence on the work of Fyodor Tyutchev, reveals the historical context in which this trend appeared and functioned. The theoretical basis of Slavophil thought was the reflections and publications of the Orthodox clergy and German philosophers, such as Schelling, Kant, Hegel and Schopenhauer. The main principles of Slavophilism are presented: religious character, love for the Russian people and anti-serfdom character; the main doctrines of Slavophilism presented by I. Kireevsky, A. Khomyakov and K. Aksakov are briefly considered. On this basis, the emergence of elements of Slavophil ideology in Tyutchev's work is shown. An important component of it is the poet's Christian worldview, which is revealed in most of his works. The poet spoke out against the distortion of faith, which, in his opinion, takes place in Catholicism and Protestantism.

Thus, he professes the superiority of Orthodoxy, which, in his opinion, was the only one that preserved fidelity to the Christian tradition. The article also notes that Tyutchev's work is characterized by the opposition of the East to the West. The poet postulated the emergence of a Christian state based not on material power, but on the purity that comes from true Christianity. The poem "To the Slavs", written on the occasion of the Slavic Congress of 1867, is analyzed in detail. The poet demonstrated in it his hope for the unification of the Slavs. In the process of analyzing the work, it is shown that Tyutchev, like other Slavophiles, saw Russia as an empire marked by a higher goal, the superiority of which is recognized by the entire West, because its spiritual revival is possible only through integration with Orthodoxy.

Revealing the Slavophile elements in the poet's work, it should be said that he was an opponent of following the West and using what is alien to Russia. According to the author, it is important that this is a Christian poet whose activity is based on the Orthodox faith, and his thoughts are focused on this idea. Tyutchev, like other representatives of Slavophilism, holds an opinion that Russia should be guided by its own path of development and stand guard over values forgotten by the West, because this is how it can become a Christian power. In the end, it is concluded that not all elements of Slavophil ideology are present in Tyutchev's work, but the inspiration of the Slavophil doctrine is undeniable.

Key words

Civil poetry, Slavophilism, the Polish question, the apologia of Orthodoxy, pan-Slavism, the mythologeme of a special path, literature vs ideology, the historiosophy of the empire, intra-Slavic conflicts.