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The article is devoted to the justification of the genetic and semantic relationship of lexemes with the etymological root * koi – // * kai- byi lidentifying the relationship between linguistic and extralanguage facts. The subject of the research is the lexemes Cain, price, repent, hope, inadvertently, desperate, which are represented in various word-formation nests, but go back to the Proto-Slavic root * koi – // * kai- and further to the identical Indo-European roots * kṷē (ị) – // * ku̯e (i) – // * ku̯ōi- in terms of a synchronic cross-section. The aim of the study is to reconstructthe stages of development of ideas about the verbalization of some significant cultural and historical concepts, to arguethe semantic relationship of the lexemes under consideration. The general methodology of the research in linguistics requires taking into account the basic philosophical laws and scientific principles. Thus, the principle of historicism in linguistics provides for the understanding of language as a historically developing phenomenon. From this point of view, the opposition of synchrony and diachrony is used in this work as a methodological device of the comparative historical method. The key findings of the study can be summarized as three-fold: semantic reconstruction of praslavs was performed. root * koi – // * kai-; the linguocultural history of derivatives is analyzed; the formal and emantic connections lost by the modern Russian language have been restored. The proximity of root morphemes can be considered genetically justified. The results of the work can be used when reading both basic and special courses of historical-linguistic and culturological orientation. The relevance of the topic is due to the identification of the origins of the imagery of modern Russian lexemes based on the involvement of the facts of Indo-European languages. The novelty of the approach taken is due to the lack of special studies on the chosen topic; the significance of the approach taken is determined by the ability to make sure that research in this direction makes it possible to establish the originality and semantic preservation of the morphosemantic field of reflexes of the ancient root * koi – // * kai-.

Key words

Etymology, word formation, semantic reconstruction, lexeme, meaning, synchrony, diachrony.